jueves, 4 de abril de 2013





MYRSIDEA POVEDAI


 THE COMMUNICATION ........
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On Mon, Sep 5, 2011 at 2:22 AM, Miroslav Capek <capek@ivb.cz> wrote:
Dear Jorge,

How are you? We have just come back from Peru where we stayed for six weeks and did research into ectoparasites in birds.

I am writing on behalf of the whole team to give you some good news about the results of our research. When we were leaving Costa Rica last year you said you would be interested to hear about our publications concerning our research in Volcan Barva. We are pleased to send you our first paper, which has just been published in the Journal of Parasitology.  It describes a species of chewing louse which is new to science.
Its specific name is “povedai”  as we decided to name it after you in recognition of your friendship, hospitality and considerable help during our stay at your place. Other scientific publications are under preparation.

I am sending best regards from Oldrich Sychra, Filip Kounek, Ivan Literak as well as Martina Literakova.

Best wishes

Mirek

--
Ing. Miroslav CAPEK, CSc.
Department of Avian Ecology
Institute of Vertebrate Biology
AS CR, v. v. i.
Kvetna 8
6 0 3  6 5  Brno
C Z E C H   R E P U B L I C




THE PUBLICATION ..........


MYRSIDEA POVEDAI (PHTHIRAPTERA: MENOPONIDAE), A NEW SPECIES OF CHEWING LOUSE FROM PHAINOPTILA MELANOXANTHA (PASSERIFORMES: BOMBYCILLIDAE)

Oldrich Sychra, Filip Kounek, Miroslav Capek*, and Ivan Literak Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho 1-3, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic. e-mail: sychrao@vfu.cz

ABSTRACT: A description and illustrations are given for Myrsidea povedai n. sp. from the black-and-yellow silky-flycatcher Phainoptila melanoxantha. The female of M. povedai is distinguished from those of other species of Myrsidea from Costa Rican passerine hosts by a unique combination of the following characteristics: (1) well-developed hypopharynx, (2) well-defined median gap in the rows of tergal setae and another gap between groups of setae on lateral side of tergites II–VII and the most central seta, and (3) enlarged metanotum with at least 23 setae.
These characters place M. povedai close to Myrsidea campestrisfrom Euneornis campestris andMyrsidea marinifrom Pezopetes capitalis(both from the Emberizidae). The female of M. povedai can be easily separeted from both aforementioned species by the abdomen without conspicuously enlarged tergites. Moreover, the male of M. povedai is characterized by a unique male genital sclerite, which is quite long (0.13–0.15), tapered apically, with a long median line, and without subapical processes. This is the first record of a chewing louse from this host and the first record of Myrsidea from the passerine family Bombycillidae. All 7 birds examined in Costa Rica in 2010 were parasitized with M. povedai. Mean abundance was 11.6, with intensity range 4–27 lice per bird.
The black-and-yellow silky-flycatcher (Phainoptila melanoxantha) represents a monotypic genus, which is endemic to Costa Rica and western Panama. It is an enigmatic avian lineage because its relationships to other passerines have long been controversial. It is usually placed into the Ptilogonatidae (del Hoyo et al., 2005). However, the most recent taxonomic survey recommends placing all ptilogonatids as a subfamily into the Bombycillidae (Spellman et al., 2008). Myrsidea Waterston is the most speciose menoponid genus parasitizing mainly passerines. It currently contains 328 recognized species throughout the world, with 309 of them recorded from 343 host species in 46 families of Passeriformes (Price et al., 2003; Palma and Price, 2010). Despite its abundance, no species of Myrsidea has been described from passerine bombycillids (sensu Spellman et al., 2008). Here we describe a new species of chewing louse Myrsidea, which represents the first from the Bombycillidae and from the black-and-yellow silky-flycatcher.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
We conducted fieldwork during the 2010 rainy season at 2 study sites in Costa Rica: (1) Sacramento, Tamarak Lodge (10u069N, 84u079W, elevation 2,430 m; 176 birds of 29 species were examined from 30 July 2010 to 3 August 2010) and (2) Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, Sector Volcan Barva (10u079N, 84u079W, elevation 2,619 m; 117 birds of 20 species were examined from 4 to 8 August 2010). At these sites, dawn-to-dusk mist netting was conducted to capture as many bird species and individuals as possible and to collect their ectoparasites.
A line of about 100 m of mist nets was checked at least once an hour. Every individual bird was identified, sexed, and aged using Stiles and Skutch (1989) and Garrigues and Dean (2007). Lice were collected using the fumigation chamber method (Clayton and Drown, 2001). Lice were stored in 70% ethanol and subsequently cleared and then slide mounted in Canada balsam as permanent slides for proper identification, following the technique of Palma (1978). All measurements are in millimeters.

DESCRIPTION
Myrsidea povedai n. sp. (Figs. 1–4)
Diagnosis female (n 5 6): Head: Hypopharyngeal sclerites strongly developed, reaching gular plate. Length of head seta 10, 0.06–0.08; seta 11, 0.12–0.13; ratio10/11, 0.50–0.62. Gula with 5–7 setae on each side, posterior-most much heavier and longer than others. Thorax: Pronotum with 6 setae on posterior marginal and 3 short spiniform setae at each lateral corner; well-developed elongate prosternal plate rounded anteriorly. Metanotum enlarged, with 23–27 setae on conspicuously rounded
posterior margin. Metapleurites with 4 short spiniform strong setae; metasternal plate large, triangular, with 4–5 setae on each side. Legs: The first tibia with 3 outer lateral ventral and 4 dorsal setae; femur III with 17– 21 setae in ventral brush. Abdomen: Without conspicuously enlarged tergites, tergites I and II medially compressed by enlarged metanotum with convex posterior margin medially, with well-defined median gap in the rows of tergal setae (Fig. 1). Well-defined gap also between groups of setaeon lateral side of tergites II–VII and the most central seta. Tergal setae: I, 20–27; II, 20–24; III, 20–26; IV, 18–24; V, 19–25; VI, 17–24; VII, 15–18; VIII, 8 (only 1 female with 10). Setae on tergites I and II quite long, extending over next 3 tergites. Postspiracular setae extremely long on II and IV (0.53–0.55), very long on VIII (0.40–0.45), long on I and VII (0.35– 0.36) and much shorter on III and V–VI (0.18–0.23). Without medioanterior tergal, sternal, or pleural setae. Sternite I small, without setae. Sternal setae: II, 4 in each aster, 18–22 marginal between asters, 7–9 medioanterior; III, 28–38; IV, 35–43; V, 40–50; VI, 35–38; VII, 15–20; VIII–IX, 13–16 marginal, 8–10 anterior setae. Posterior margin of subgenital plate serrated. Anus with 33–46 setae in each ventral and dorsal fringe. Length of inner posterior seta of last tergum 0.04–0.05; short lateral marginal seta of last segment 0.05–0.07. Dimensions:Temple width, 0.50–0.52; head length, 0.30–0.31; prothorax width, 0.31–0.32; metathorax width, 0.50–0.52; abdomen width at level of segment IV, 0.62–0.70; anus width, 0.23–0.24; total length, 1.51–1.55. Male (n 5 6): Head: Length of head seta 10, 0.06–0.07; seta 11, 0.10– 0.12; ratio10/11, 0.50–0.70. Gula with 5–6 setae on each side. Thorax: Metanotum with 11–14 setae on posterior margin, metasternal plate with 3–4 setae on each side. Legs: Femur III with 15–20 setae in ventral brush. Abdomen: Tergites with well-defined median gap in the rows of tergal setae. Tergal setae: I, 14–17; II, 17–20; III, 17–21; IV, 17–21; V, 17–21; VI, 16–19; VII, 13–16; VIII, 12. Postspiracular setae very long on II, IV, and VIII (0.42–0.48), long on I and VII (0.25–0.30), and much shorter on III and V–VI (0.12–0.20). Sternal setae: II, 4 in each aster, 13–16 marginal between asters, 6–10 medioanterior; III, 20–29; IV, 28–36; V, 33–37; VI, 31–36; VII, 15–22; VIII–IX, 9–12, remainder of plate, 7–13. Sternite VII separate from subgenital plate of fused VIII–IX; with 8 internal anal setae. Length of inner posterior seta of last tergum 0.06–0.07; short lateral marginal seta of last segment 0.02. Genitalia: As in Figure 2. Genital sac sclerite as in Figure 3, quite long, tapered apically, with quite long median line, without subapical processes. Dimensions: Temple width, 0.44–0.47; head length, 0.28–0.29; prothorax width, 0.28–0.30; metathorax width,

Received 6 December 2010; revised 3 February 2011; accepted 11 February 2011.
* Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic.
DOI: 10.1645/GE-2715.1 J. Parasitol., 97(4), 2011, pp. 593–595 F American Society of Parasitologists 2011 5930.37–0.40; abdomen width at level of segment IV, 0.45–0.48; genitalia length, 0.42–0.45; genitalia width, 0.12; genital sac sclerite length, 0.13– 0.15; total length, 1.30–1.36.

Taxonomic summary:
Type host: Phainoptila melanoxantha Salvin.
Type material: Female holotype ex P. melanoxantha (slide O. Sychra CR96), Costa Rica, Sacramento, Tamarak Lodge (10u069N, 84u079W, elevation 2,430 m), 3 August 2010, Sychra, Kounek, Capek and Literak leg. Paratypes: 1 female and 2 males with same data as holotype, 4 females and 4 males ex P. melanoxantha, Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, Sector Volcan Barva (10u079N, 84u079W, elevation 2,619 m), 7–8 August 2010, Sychra, Kounek, Capek and Literak
leg. Deposited in the National Biodiversity Institute (INBio), Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica (O. Sychra CR96–97); Moravian Museum, Brno (MZM),
Czech Republic (O. Sychra CR98–99); and Natural History Museum,
London, United Kingdom (O. Sychra CR100–101).
Range of infestatation and abundance:Intensity range 5 4–27 and mean abundance 5 11.6.

Etymology:
This species is named in honor of Jorge Poveda Quiro´s (Costa Rica) in recognition of his friendship and invaluable help during our research field stay on Volca´n Barva, Costa Rica, in 2010.

Remarks
The female of M. povedai is distinguished from those of other species of Myrsidea from Costa Rican passerine hosts by a unique combination of the following characteristics: (1) well-developed hypopharynx, (2) well-defined median gap in the rows of tergal setae and another gap between groups of setae on lateral side of tergites II–VII and the most central seta, and (3) enlarged metanotum with at least 23 setae. These characters place M. povedai


FIGURES 1–4. Myrsidea povedai n. sp. (1) Female. (2) Male. (3) Male genitalia. (4) Male genital sclerite. 
Scales: 0.50 mm (Figs. 1–2), 0.10 mm

(Figs. 3–4). For Figures 1–2 dorsal side on left, ventral side on right.

594 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 97, NO. 4, AUGUST 2011 close to M. campestris from Euneornis campestris and M. marini from Pezopetes capitalis (both from the Emberizidae). The female of M. povedai can be easily separeted from both aforementioned species by the abdomen without conspicuously enlarged tergites. Moreover, male of M. povedai is characterized by unique male genital sclerite, which is quite long (0.13–0.15), tapered apically, with long median line, and without subapical processes.
This is the first record of a chewing louse from P. melanoxantha and the first record of Myrsidea from the Bombycillidae. All 7 birds examined were parasitized with 81 specimens of M. povedai (40 males, 21 females, and 20 nymphs were found). Although an even sex ratio is predominant in most ectoparasites, in some species of chewing lice, a skewed ratio can be observed (Price et al., 2003). Clayton et al. (1992) found that ischnoceran lice had more female-biased sex ratios, whereas amblyceran lice had more male-biased ratios. This corroborates our results (male:female ratio 5 1:0.53). The skewed age ratio observed (adult:nymph 5 1:0.33) is also similar to those indicated by Clayton et al. (1992) and suggests the existence of stable chewing lice populations (Mashall, 1981). Eggs of lice were found on 4 of 7 black-and-yellow silky-flycatchers examined. They were located on the head and neck of host.

DISCUSSION
Although there has been no comprehensive study of the entire genus due to the large number of species involved, all evidence suggests that each host species or group of closely related host
species is parasitized by 1, or more, closely related species of Myrsidea (Clay, 1966; Price and Dalgleish, 2007). Therefore, the only practical way to deal with the taxonomy of such a large genus is to treat lice from each host family as a unit. While most species of Myrsidea are more easily identified by examining females, males may show characteristics needed for phylogenetic analysis (Clay, 1966). Species of Myrsidea grouped together based on characteristics of the male genital sclerite are frequently found to be parasitic on a group of related hosts, usually from 1 bird family. The male of Myrsidea povedai is characterized by a unique male genital sclerite. If other members of the Ptilogonatinae and Bombycillidae harbor Myrsidea with the same type of male genital sclerite, this may lend support to findings of molecular phylogenetic analysis and confirm validity as to the recently
described taxonomic status of the Bombycillidae sensu Spellman et al. (2008). The only way to clarify this case will be to collect and study moreMyrsidea occurring on other species of Bombycillidae.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The fieldwork part of the study was permitted by the Ministerio de Ambiente, Energia y Telecomunicaciones de Costa Rica (Resolucion No 136-2010-SINAC). We are grateful to Bernardo Calvo Rodriguez and Martina Literakova for their help in the field. Funding was provided by the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Grant IAA601690901). M.C. was also supported in part by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic (Grant LC06073).
LITERATURE CITED
CLAY, T. 1966. Contributions towards a revision of Myrsidea Waterston. I. (Menoponidae: Mallophaga). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology 17: 327–395.
CLAYTON, D. H., AND D. M. DROWN. 2001. Critical evaluation of five methods for quantifying chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Journal of Parasitology 87: 1291–300.
———, R. D. GREGORY, AND R. D. PRICE. 1992. Comparative ecology of neotropical bird lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera). Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 781–795.
DEL HOYO, J., A. ELLIOT, AND D. CHRISTIE (EDS.). 2005. Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 10. Cuckoo-shrikes to thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain, 895 p.
GARRIGUES, R., AND R. DEAN. 2007. The birds of Costa Rica: A field guide. Christopher Helm, London, U.K., 387 p.
MARSHALL, A. G. 1981. The ecology of ectoparasitic insects. Academic Press, London, U.K., 459 p.
PALMA R. L. 1978. Slide mounting of lice: A description of the Canada balsam technique. New Zealand Entomologist 6: 432–436.
———, AND R. D. PRICE. 2010. The species of Myrsidea Waterston (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from the Galapagos Islands, with descriptions of new taxa. Tuhinga 21: 135–146.
PRICE, R. D., AND R. C. DALGLEISH. 2007. Myrsidea Waterston (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from the Emberizidae (Passeriformes), with descriptions of 13 new species. Zootaxa 1467: 1–18.
———, R. A. HELLENTHAL, R. L. PALMA, K. P. JOHNSON, AND D. H. CLAYTON. 2003. The chewing lice: World checklist and biological overview. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 24, Champaign, Illinois, 501 p.
SPELLMAN, G. M., A. CIBOIS, R. G. MOYLE, K. WINKER, AND F. K. BARKER. 2008. Clarifying the systematics of an enigmatic avian lineage: What is a bombycillid? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 1036–1040.
STILES, F. G., AND A. SKUTCH. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Christopher Helm, London, U.K., 511 p.


THE NEW ECTOPARASITE FOUND....




FIGURES 1–4. Myrsidea povedai n. sp. (1) Female. (2) Male. (3) Male genitalia. (4) Male genital sclerite. 
Scales: 0.50 mm (Figs. 1–2), 0.10 mm



Description of bird Phainoptila
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The Black-and-yellow Phainoptila is a small, rotund bird with distinctive yellow flanks. Males have a black back, head and tail, yellow flanks and rump, olive breasts and grey bellies. Females have a black cap, olive breast, rump, wings and tail, yellow flanks, and grey throat,nape, and belly. Young are similar to adult female, but duller and with no grey on nape and dusky streaking on breast.
Black-and-yellow Phainoptilas are found from Costa Rica to western Panama, in mountains from 1800 m (6000 ft.) to timberline, although they may wander lower after breeding season. Found in highland forests and adjacent second growth and gardens.
Bibliography of citation: 


References on the Web: 

1.      
by O Sychra - 2011 - Related articles
J Parasitol. 2011 Aug;97(4):593-5. doi: 10.1645/GE-2715.1. Epub 2011 Feb 11.Myrsidea povedai (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), a new species of chewing louse ...

2.      
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7.      
Abstract A description and illustrations are given for Myrsidea povedai n. sp. ex black-and-yellow silky-flycatcher Phainoptila melanoxantha. The female of M.

8.      
Results 1 - 10 – Myrsidea povedai (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), a New Species of Chewing Lous... - BioOne: Journal of Parasitology. MYRSIDEA POVEDAI ...

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