The Universe is Only Spacetime by John A. Macken
How many component parts are required to construct the universe? The standard model has so many component parts that it is difficult to state a specific number. String theory has vibrating strings, branes, exchange particles and 11 dimensions. This book makes the case that everything in the universe can be formed from the single building block of 4 dimensional spacetime. However, this is not the quiet, smoothly curving spacetime envisioned by Albert Einstein. Instead, it is the composite of Einstein's spacetime and the quantum mechanical spacetime filled with a tremendous energy density of quantum fluctuations. This book shows how all fundamental particles, forces and cosmology can be derived from this energetic 4 dimensional spacetime.
Revision 7.1 – Placed online for comments – May 2013
Quantum mechanics is the most successful theory devised by man. However, this success is largely a case of the equations corresponding to experimental observation. The current physical interpretation of quantum mechanics does not lead to a conceptually understandable model of the universe. Furthermore, there is clear evidence that the current starting assumptions for some quantum mechanical calculations contain at least one error. When calculations fall apart and yield an impossible answer such as infinity, these equations are screaming that a rigorous extension of the starting assumptions gives nonsense. Renormalization might seem to fix the problem, but this is merely a case of artificially adjusted the answer so that it no longer is a logical extension of the starting assumptions. Instead the unreasonable answer should be taken as an indication that the model being analyzed contains at least one erroneous assumption. The approach taken in this book is to build a new conceptual model of the universe that is compatible with the equations of quantum mechanics and general relativity but is based on the simplest possible starting assumption: The universe is only spacetime.
To most scientists this starting assumption will initially seem impossible. How can matter, light, galaxies and the forces of nature be obtained from what appears to be the empty vacuum of spacetime? Well, spacetime is far from being a featureless void. It has well known properties such as a speed of light and a gravitational constant as well as proposed properties such as impedance and a bulk modulus (derived here). Most important, the quantum mechanical version of spacetime is full of activity. Vacuum fluctuations (zero point energy) possess a vast energy density that only interacts with our observable universe (fermions and bosons) through quantum mechanical operations. Understanding the quantum mechanical properties of spacetime and reconciling these properties with general relativity reveals how this single building block can be the source of everything in the universe. Furthermore, the biggest mysteries of quantum mechanics become conceptually understandable when we adopt the model that builds particles and forces from the quantum mechanical properties of spacetime.
The model of the universe described here not only is compatible with existing equations but goes further. For example, this model gives new insights into the forces of nature. Gravity is shown to be closely related to the other forces of nature. Simple equations show this close relationship and explain why gravity is such a weak force compared to the other forces. Inertia is derived and connected to the energy of fundamental particles. An electrical field is shown to be an unsymmetrical distortion of spacetime. Equations are derived that convert charge to a distortion of spacetime. Photons are shown to experience the same impedance as gravitational waves. A new cosmological model of the universe explains how the Big Bang and the expansion of the universe is the result of spacetime undergoing a transformation that continues today.
The content of this book was not first presented in technical papers because the subject is just too large. It is necessary to lay out a series of introductory ideas, and then weave these concepts into a single coherent theory. The first three chapters lay the groundwork of physical interpretations and definitions that prepares the reader to understand the proposed model. Development of this wave based model of the universe starts in earnest in chapter #4.
Readers are encouraged to provide comments, corrections or objections by sending an email to:
The book is available as a single 5 MB unit (PDF Book Download) or individual chapters are available below. If the book is downloaded, I recommend saving the book (click the save icon), then read the saved version of the book. This will be a larger format and it will not be necessary to download the book for future reading.
Table of Contents
• Light in a Reflecting Box • Confined Black Body Radiation • de Broglie Waves • 8 Particle-like Properties of a Confined Photon
• Schwarzschild Solution • Definition of Gravitational Gamma • Schwarzschild Coordinate System • Coordinate Speed of Light • Gravitational Acceleration and the Rate of Time Gradient • Shapiro Experiment • Gravity Increases Volume • Connection Between the Rate of Time and Volume
• Why Are the Laws of Physics Unchanged When the Rate of Time Changes? • Normalized Coordinate System • Length and Time Transformations • Transformations Required to Preserve the Laws of Physics • Insights From the Transformations
• This Book's Basic Assumption • QM Model of Spacetime • GR Model of Spacetime • Dipole Waves in Spacetime • Planck Length/Time Limitation On Dipole Waves • Impedance of Spacetime • 5 Wave-Amplitude Equations • Bulk Modulus of Spacetime • The Single Fundamental Force
5 Spacetime Particle Model
• Spacetime Vortex in a Sea of Vacuum Energy • Particle Design Criteria • Inertia from Confined Energy • The Rotar Model of a Particle • Quantum Radius and Quantum Volume of a Rotar • Rotating Grav Field • Analysis of Lobes • Dynamic Time • Strain Amplitude Hβ • Particle Size Analysis • Stability Mechanism • Higgs Boson Not Needed
• Rotar Energy Test • Rotar's Angular Momentum Test • Dipole Moment • Quantum Amplitude Equalities • Circulating Power • Rotar's Theoretical Maximum Force (Strong Force) • Electromagnetic Force at Distance Rq • Rotar's Gravitational Force at Distance Rq • Weakness of Gravity • Force – Amplitude Relationship • The 4 Forces Are Intimately Connected
• Virtual Particle Pairs • Vacuum Energy • Harmonic Oscillators in Spacetime • Energy Density of Vacuum Energy • Energy Density Equals Pressure • Bulk Modulus of Spacetime • Vacuum Energy Is a Superfluid • Stability of Particles Made of Waves • Vacuum Energy Stabilization of a Rotar • Minimum Required Energy Density • Maximum Attracting Force • Asymptotic Freedom • Rotation of Molecules • Unity Hypothesis • Entanglement-Unity Connection
• Nonlinear Effects of Waves in Spacetime • Newtonian Gravitational Equation Derivation • Connection between Gravitational Force and Electromagnetic Force • Equivalence of Acceleration and Gravity Examined • Comparison of a Rotar's Rotating Grav Field and Gravitational Acceleration • Energy Density in the Rotating Grav Field • Gravitational Energy Storage
• Charge Conversion Constant • Spacetime Interpretation of Charge • Impedance of Spacetime Conversion • What Is an Electric Field? • Electric Field Conversion • Proposed Experiments • Spacetime Units Conversion Table
10 Rotar's External Volume
• Gravitational and Electromagnetic Strain Amplitudes • Electric Field Cancelation • Model of the External Volume of a Rotar • Wavelets • Path Integral • de Broglie Waves • Ψ Function • Relativistic Contraction • Compton Scattering • Double Slit Experiment
• How Big Is a Photon? • Photon - Definition • Waves in Vacuum Energy • Wave Model of an Electron‑Positron Annihilation • Entanglement • Single Photon Model • Photon's Momentum Uncertainty Angle • Compton Scattering Revisited • Limits on Absorption • Photon Emission from a Single Atom • Recoil • Huygens-Fresnel-Kirchhoff Principle
• Electrons Bound in Atoms • Physical Interpretation of the Ψ Function • Intrinsic Energy of Quarks • Energy of Bound Quarks • Calculation of a Proton's Radius • Removal of a Quark from a Hadron • Gluons • Modeling a Neutrino With Rest Mass • W and Z Bosons
13 Cosmology I – Planck Spacetime
• Comoving Coordinates • The -CDM Model • Planck Spacetime • Maximum Energy Density • Creation of New Proper Volume • Background Gravitational Gamma of the Universe u • Immature Gravity • Implication of an Increasing u in the Universe • Energy Density of Planck Spacetime • Proposed Alternative Model of the Beginning of the Universe • Cosmic Expansion from u • Starting the Universe from Planck Spacetime • Radiation Dominated Epoch • Lost Energy Becomes Vacuum Energy • Estimates of the Current Value of u • Dark Matter Proposal
• Alternative To The Big Bang Model • Shrinking Meter Sticks • No Event Horizon • Constant Energy Density When Vacuum Energy Included • Redshift Analysis • Estimating the Density of Vacuum Energy • Units of Physics in the Spacetime Transformation Model • 10120 Calculation • Does Dark Energy Exist? • Cooling of the Universe • Black Holes • Time's Arrow • The Fate of the Universe
Some key points from the book are:
- Even though a photon is commonly defined as a massless particle, a photon exhibits inertia if it is confined in an optical resonator. The inertia arises from bidirectional Doppler shifts when the resonator is accelerated. This is intrinsic inertia that does not require a Higgs field. A confined photon is shown to possess a total of 8 particle-like properties. Fundamental particles are not confined photons, but this similarity is used to explain how fundamental particles can be formed out of waves in spacetime. (chapter 1)
- Spacetime is more than 3 spatial dimensions plus time. Spacetime is shown to also have the largest possible impedance and bulk modulus (chapters 4 and 7). Therefore spacetime is a very stiff elastic medium which supports energetic waves.
- Vacuum fluctuations in spacetime are known to be highly energetic (vacuum energy, virtual particle pairs, Casimir effect, etc.). It is proposed that vacuum fluctuations are actually dipole waves in spacetime that lack quantized angular momentum. General relativity forbids dipole waves in spacetime but they are proposed to be permitted by the uncertainty principle. This is the same as saying that the fluctuating spatial displacement of spacetime cannot exceed Planck length and the fluctuating temporal displacement of spacetime cannot exceed Planck time. (chapter 4)
- The dipole waves in spacetime that form vacuum fluctuations are proposed to have the properties of a superfluid including the inability to possess angular momentum. Any angular momentum present in the sea of vacuum fluctuations is quantized. (chapter 7)
- A fundamental particle model is proposed that is a rotating distortion is spacetime that forms a closed loop, one Compton wavelength in circumference. This model depends on an interaction with the vacuum energy to form stable resonances. The proposed structure is analyzed and shown to possess the required particle-like properties including quantized angular momentum, intrinsic inertia (rest mass) and the ability to appear to be a point particle in a collision experiment. The quantum mechanical properties of particles are made conceptually understandable. (chapters 5, 6, 7)
- This model generates only one truly fundamental force. This is the repulsive force exhibited when waves in spacetime, propagating at the speed of light, are deflected. Variations of this single fundamental force result in the four forces of nature. Attraction between particles is explained. (chapters 4, 5, 6 ,8)
- Gravity is derived from this fundamental force. The reason for the weakness of gravity is shown to be that gravity is associated with the nonlinearity of spacetime which is a weak second order effect. New relationships between the forces of nature are obtained using insights from the wave-based model. (chapters 6 and 8)
- Compton scattering has been used to "prove" that a photon must have particle-like properties. However, it is shown that a purely wave based explanation of both an electron and a photon gives the same scattering characteristics. Furthermore, the wave-based model is actually superior because it shows how it is possible for the electron to go from its initial velocity to its final velocity without accelerating through intermediate velocities. (chapter 9)
- A new cosmological model of the universe is proposed that is based entirely on the properties of spacetime. The expansion of the universe is viewed as being the result of a transformation of spacetime that started with the "Big Bang" and continues today. This model eliminates the need for dark energy and it gives different predictions about the future of the universe. (chapters 13, 14)
Readers are encouraged to provide comments, corrections or objections by sending an email to:
Author: John A. Macken